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Posts Tagged: Climate Change

Will climate change affect the sensitivity of weeds to herbicides?

Translocation of glyphosate

Herbicides are the main means of controlling weeds. Recently, there has been increasing concern over the potential impacts of climate change, specifically, increasing temperatures and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, on the sensitivity of...

Posted on Monday, September 10, 2018 at 7:55 AM
Tags: Climate Change (5), glyphosate (31), herbicide (61), horseweed (7), lambsquarter (1), weed (25), weed control (80)
Focus Area Tags: Agriculture Pest Management

What Effect Did the California Drought Have on Butterflies?

Art Shapiro, UC Davis distinguished professor of evolution and ecology, counting butterflies in Gates Canyon, Vacaville, on Jan. 26, 2014. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Remember the California drought of 2011 to 2015? What effect did that have on butterflies? Newly published research examining more than four decades of data collected in central California by Art Shapiro, UC Davis distinguished professor of evolution...

Art Shapiro, UC Davis distinguished professor of evolution and ecology, counting butterflies in Gates Canyon, Vacaville, on Jan. 26, 2014. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)
Art Shapiro, UC Davis distinguished professor of evolution and ecology, counting butterflies in Gates Canyon, Vacaville, on Jan. 26, 2014. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Art Shapiro, UC Davis distinguished professor of evolution and ecology, counting butterflies in Gates Canyon, Vacaville, on Jan. 26, 2014. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

A Beer for a Butterfly or 'Suds for a Bug'

This is a cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

It's almost that time again—time for the annual “Beer for a Butterfly” contest or “Suds for a Bug.” If you're out and about on Jan. 1, start looking for that cabbage white butterfly. But you're going to have to beat the...

This is a cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)
This is a cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

This is a cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Posted on Thursday, December 29, 2016 at 2:24 PM

World Food Center at UC Davis will tackle global issues

When you think casually of “food,” you may think of your next meal or your favorite food. “World food” may broaden your thinking to include international cuisines, global hunger, or a growing population. But the academic fields related to food are numerous. Food is one of life’s basic necessities, and along with its associated issues it is essential to the health and well-being of everyone, whatever their locale, education, or income level.

The new World Food Center at UC Davis will take on a broad purview related to food, including sustainable agricultural and environmental practices, food security and safety, hunger, poverty reduction through improved incomes, health and nutrition, population growth, new foods, genomics, food distribution systems, food waste, intellectual property distribution related to food, economic development and new technologies and policies.

With rapid global population growth occurring on smaller amounts of arable land, coupled with the expected impacts of climate change on food production, understanding the sustainability of food into the future is critical.

The new center’s website notes, “The World Food Center at UC Davis takes a ‘big picture’ approach to sustainably solving humanity’s most pressing problems in food and health. By bringing together world-class scientists with innovators, philanthropists and industry and public leaders, the center will generate the kind of visionary knowledge and practical policy solutions that will feed and nurture people for decades to come.”

In establishing the World Food Center, UC Davis Chancellor Linda Katehi said, “We did this to fully capitalize on our depth and expertise as the world’s leading university for education, research and scholarship on all aspects of food, but especially the nexus between food and health.”

UC Davis is the top-ranked agricultural university in the world, and California is the major producer of vegetables and fruit in the nation. Tom Tomich, director of the Agricultural Sustainability Institute and professor in the Department of Environmental Science and Policy at UC Davis, says of the World Food Center’s location at UC Davis, “There’s no place else that has the right mix of educational programs, research facilities, and the engagement with the state.”

The major academic disciplines surrounding food are found at UC Davis — agriculture, the environment, medicine, veterinary medicine, engineering, social and cultural sciences, and management. More than 30 centers and institutes at UC Davis will be pulled together through the World Food Center. The combination of scholarship, leadership, and partnerships at UC Davis has already established the campus as a center for food-related science and outreach. This new center will reinforce that strength and broaden the university’s ability to tackle tough global issues related to food.

Although the founding director of the center has yet to be named, Josette Lewis, Ph.D., was recently appointed as the associate director of the World Food Center. Her background on international research and development for the U.S. Agency for International Development, and director of its Office of Agriculture, honed her skills to take on the World Food Center. It was at US AID that she worked on a major global hunger and food security initiative, establishing her expertise on issues related to global agricultural development and food security.

As the new World Food Center becomes fully developed, it will be well-positioned on campus to continue to solve the major global issues related to food that are a hallmark of UC Davis.

Additional information:

Swaying both ways

Imagine if rice – yes, that semiaquatic species that is typically cultivated under partially flooded conditions – could be both flood- and drought-tolerant. Such a rice variety would benefit rice growers and consumers worldwide and would be less vulnerable to weather extremes that may result from global climate change.

Now UC Riverside experiments demonstrate that such rice is already here. Genetics professor Julia Bailey-Serres’ research group reports in a recent issue of The Plant Cell that flood-tolerant rice is also better able to recover from drought.

“Flood tolerance does not reduce drought tolerance in these rice plants, and appears to even benefit them when they encounter drought,” Bailey-Serres says.

She and her team – Takeshi Fukao, a senior researcher, and Elaine Yeung, an undergraduate student – focused on Sub1A, a gene responsible for flood or “submergence” tolerance in rice. Sub1A works by making the plant dormant during submergence, allowing it to conserve energy until the floodwaters recede. Indeed, rice with the Sub1A gene can survive more than two weeks of complete submergence.

Plant breeders have already profited farmers worldwide – especially in South Asia – by having transferred Sub1A into high-yielding rice varieties without compromising these varieties’ desirable traits — such as high yield, good grain quality, and pest and disease resistance.

Bailey-Serres’s lab found that in addition to providing robust submergence tolerance, Sub1A aids survival of drought. The researchers report that at the molecular level Sub1A serves as a convergence point between submergence and drought response pathways, allowing rice plants to survive and re-grow after both weather extremes.

“Sub1A properly coordinates physiological and molecular responses to cellular water deficit when this deficit occurs independently, as in a time of drought, or following ‘desubmergence,’ which takes place when flood waters recede,” says Bailey-Serres who was the lead recipient of the 2008 USDA National Research Initiative Discovery Award.

Next, her colleagues at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines will test the Sub1A rice for drought tolerance in the field. What are some other implications of this research? One that comes to mind is that the “Got Rice?” slogan might have to drop the question mark, and put in its place a solid period!

Posted on Tuesday, March 8, 2011 at 8:45 AM
Tags: Climate Change (5), Desubmergence (1), Drought (25), Flood (1), Precipitation (1), Rice (24)
 
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